Bibliography for Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials

  1. “8. 7 Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials | Training Manual | HIV i-Base.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://i-base.info/ttfa/8-clinical-trials-and-research/8-7-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials/.
  2. “8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental Research | FutureofWorking.Com.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://futureofworking.com/8-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-experimental-research/.
  3. ResearchGate. “A Framework for Development and Evaluation of RCT’s for Complex Interventions to Improve Health | Request PDF.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1211/ijpp.14.4.0001.
  4. “Academy Submits Recommendations for Development of 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.eatrightpro.org/news-center/on-the-pulse-of-public-policy/regulatory-comments/academy-submits-recommendations-for-development-of-2020-2025-dietary-guidelines-for-americans.
  5. admin. “Introduction to Study Designs – Intervention Studies and Randomised Controlled Trials.” Text. Health Knowledge, July 7, 2010. https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/e-learning/epidemiology/practitioners/introduction-study-design-is-rct.
  6. Admin1. “Trials and Errors: The Limits of Randomised Controlled Trials.” Campbell Collaboration. Accessed September 12, 2020. https://campbellcollaboration.org/blog/trials-and-errors-the-limits-of-randomised-controlled-trials.html.
  7. DAIC. “Advantages and Disadvantages of Novel Oral Anticoagulants,” July 12, 2016. https://www.dicardiology.com/article/advantages-and-disadvantages-novel-oral-anticoagulants.
  8. Akobeng, A. K. “Understanding Randomised Controlled Trials.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 90, no. 8 (August 1, 2005): 840–44. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2004.058222.
  9. Ali, A. B., C. Chapman-Kiddell, and M. M. Reeves. “Current Practices in the Delivery of Parenteral Nutrition in Australia.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, no. 4 (April 2007): 554–60. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602547.
  10. Allen, Ryan W., Prabjit K. Barn, and Bruce P. Lanphear. “Randomized Controlled Trials in Environmental Health Research: Unethical or Underutilized?” PLoS Medicine 12, no. 1 (January 2015): e1001775. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001775.
  11. Althouse, Andrew D., Kaleab Z. Abebe, Gary S. Collins, and Frank E. Harrell Jr. “Response to ‘Why All Randomized Controlled Trials Produce Biased Results.’” Annals of Medicine 50, no. 7 (October 3, 2018): 545–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2018.1514529.
  12. docksci.com. “Analyzing Overall Survival in Randomized Controlled Trials with Crossover and Implications for Economic Evaluation. – PDF Download Free.” Accessed September 14, 2020. https://docksci.com/analyzing-overall-survival-in-randomized-controlled-trials-with-crossover-and-im_5a90a482d64ab23839286213.html.
  13. Andrews, Keith. “The Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials in Rehabilitation Research.” Clinical Rehabilitation 5, no. 1 (February 1, 1991): 5–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/026921559100500102.
  14. Aronson, Jeffrey K. “Anecdotes as Evidence.” BMJ 326, no. 7403 (June 19, 2003): 1346. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7403.1346.
  15. Aronson, Jeffrey K., and Manfred Hauben. “Anecdotes That Provide Definitive Evidence.” BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 333, no. 7581 (December 16, 2006): 1267–69. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39036.666389.94.
  16. ResearchGate. “Assessing the Gold Standard — Lessons from the History of RCTs.” Accessed September 14, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMms1604593.
  17. “August 15, 2011 – Chiropractic Resource Organization – Largest Chiropractic News Source.” Accessed September 14, 2020. https://chiro.org/wordpress/2011/08/15/.
  18. Axelrod, David A., and Rodney Hayward. “Nonrandomized Interventional Study Designs (Quasi-Experimental Designs).” In Clinical Research Methods for Surgeons, edited by David F. Penson and John T. Wei, 63–76. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-230-4_4.
  19. Bauchner, Howard, and Phil B. Fontanarosa. “Randomized Clinical Trials and COVID-19: Managing Expectations.” JAMA 323, no. 22 (June 9, 2020): 2262–63. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8115.
  20. “Benefits and Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials: I Agree with Deaton and Cartwright « Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://statmodeling.stat.columbia.edu/2018/01/08/benefits-limitations-randomized-controlled-trials-agree-deaton-cartwright/.
  21. Berger, Robert L, Bartolome R Celli, Anne L Meneghetti, Peter H Bagley, Cameron D Wright, Edward P Ingenito, Anthony Gray, and Gordon L Snider. “Limitations of Randomized Clinical Trials for Evaluating Emerging Operations: The Case of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery.” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 72, no. 2 (August 1, 2001): 649–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-4975(01)02636-4.
  22. Bergman, Jonathan, Anna Nordström, and Peter Nordström. “Overestimation of the Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 34, no. 9 (2019): 1767–68. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3808.
  23. Bergqvist, D., M. Björck, J. Säwe, and T. Troëng. “Randomized Trials or Population-Based Registries.” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 34, no. 3 (September 1, 2007): 253–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2007.06.014.
  24. “Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials: A Critical Comparison of Trials with Nonrandomized Studies – Sørensen – 2006 – Hepatology – Wiley Online Library.” Accessed September 11, 2020. https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hep.21404.
  25. Bhatt, Deepak L., and Cyrus Mehta. “Adaptive Designs for Clinical Trials.” Edited by Jeffrey M. Drazen, David P. Harrington, John J.V. McMurray, James H. Ware, and Janet Woodcock. New England Journal of Medicine 375, no. 1 (July 7, 2016): 65–74. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1510061.
  26. Bhide, Amar, Prakesh S. Shah, and Ganesh Acharya. “A Simplified Guide to Randomized Controlled Trials.” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 97, no. 4 (2018): 380–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13309.
  27. “Blog: Three Problems with Randomized Controlled Trials – CDE Alumni Resources.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://sites.williams.edu/cdealumniresources/content-type/blog-three-problems-with-randomized-controlled-trials/.
  28. Bondemark, Lars, and Sabine Ruf. “Randomized Controlled Trial: The Gold Standard or an Unobtainable Fallacy?” European Journal of Orthodontics 37, no. 5 (October 1, 2015): 457–61. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjv046.
  29. Boston, 677 Huntington Avenue, and Ma 02115 +1495‑1000. “Salt and Sodium.” The Nutrition Source, July 18, 2013. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/salt-and-sodium/.
  30. Braga, Luis Henrique P., Forough Farrokhyar, and Mohit Bhandari. “Practical Tips for Surgical Research.” Canadian Journal of Surgery 55, no. 2 (April 2012): 132–38. https://doi.org/10.1503/cjs.036311.
  31. Braun, Henry. “The Cognitive Outcomes of Liberal Education.” The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Boston College, January 4, 2019. https://mellon.org/news-blog/articles/cognitive-outcomes-liberal-education/.
  32. Bulpitt, Christopher J. “The Advantages and Disadvantages of Randomised Controlled Trials.” In Randomised Controlled Clinical Trials, edited by Christopher J. Bulpitt, 379–85. Boston, MA: Springer US, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6347-1_20.
  33. Burtless, Gary. “Experimental Economists Win Nobel Prize (and Deserved to Win).” Brookings (blog), October 23, 2019. https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/experimental-economists-win-nobel-prize-and-deserved-to-win/.
  34. Candlish, Jane, M. Dawn Teare, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Laura Flight, Laura Mandefield, and Stephen J. Walters. “Appropriate Statistical Methods for Analysing Partially Nested Randomised Controlled Trials with Continuous Outcomes: A Simulation Study.” BMC Medical Research Methodology 18, no. 1 (October 11, 2018): 105. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0559-x.
  35. Carey, Timothy A., Vyv Huddy, and Robert Griffiths. “To Mix or Not To Mix? A Meta-Method Approach to Rethinking Evaluation Practices for Improved Effectiveness and Efficiency of Psychological Therapies Illustrated With the Application of Perceptual Control Theory.” Frontiers in Psychology 10 (2019). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01445.
  36. Carey, Timothy, and William Stiles. “Some Problems with Randomized Controlled Trials and Some Viable Alternatives.” Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 23, no. 1 (2016): 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1942.
  37. Students 4 Best Evidence. “Case-Control and Cohort Studies: A Brief Overview,” December 6, 2017. https://www.students4bestevidence.net/blog/2017/12/06/case-control-and-cohort-studies-overview/.
  38. Catalog of Bias. “Catalogue of Bias,” March 27, 2017. https://catalogofbias.org/.
  39. “Centre for Remote Health Publications – CRH – Centre for Remote Health.” Accessed September 14, 2020. https://www.crh.org.au/centre-for-remote-health-publications/publication/show/788.
  40. “CHAPTER 3 Bias in Randomized Controlled Trials,” 2007. /paper/CHAPTER-3-Bias-in-randomized-controlled-trials/fdeb343dfd2e43384eb6987608122c9cb5991b5d.
  41. “Chapter 8: Assessing Risk of Bias in a Randomized Trial.” Accessed September 14, 2020. /handbook/current/chapter-08.
  42. Chen, YUNG-TAI, JUN Chen, WAI-YAN Wong, STEPHEN SHEI-DEI Yang, CHENG-HSING Hsieh, and CHUNG-CHENG Wang. “Is Ureteral Stenting Necessary After Uncomplicated Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy? A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial.” The Journal of Urology 167, no. 5 (May 1, 2002): 1977–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)65066-5.
  43. Chopra, Sameer S. “Industry Funding of Clinical Trials: Benefit or Bias?” JAMA 290, no. 1 (July 2, 2003): 113–14. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.1.113.
  44. Cleophas, Ton J., and Aeilko H. Zwinderman. “Limitations of Randomized Clinical Trials. Proposed Alternative Designs.” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) 38, no. 12 (December 4, 2000): 1217–23. https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2000.192.
  45. LSHTM. “Cluster Randomised Trials.” Accessed September 14, 2020. https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/research/centres/centre-evaluation/cluster-randomised-trials.
  46. Concato, John, Nirav Shah, and Ralph I. Horwitz. “Randomized, Controlled Trials, Observational Studies, and the Hierarchy of Research Designs.” New England Journal of Medicine 342, no. 25 (June 22, 2000): 1887–92. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200006223422507.
  47. “Consort-Statement > CONSORT 2010 > Randomisation: Sequence Generation.” Accessed September 12, 2020. http://www.consort-statement.org/checklists/view/32–consort-2010/86-randomisation-sequence-generation.
  48. Cook, Chad E., and Charles A. Thigpen. “Five Good Reasons to Be Disappointed with Randomized Trials.” Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 27, no. 2 (March 15, 2019): 63–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/10669817.2019.1589697.
  49. Craig, Peter, Paul Dieppe, Sally Macintyre, Susan Michie, Irwin Nazareth, Mark Petticrew, and Medical Research Council Guidance. “Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions: The New Medical Research Council Guidance.” BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 337 (September 29, 2008): a1655. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a1655.
  50. “Cureus | The Benefits and Limitations of Evidence-Based Practice in Osteopathy.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.cureus.com/articles/24793-the-benefits-and-limitations-of-evidence-based-practice-in-osteopathy.
  51. Dalziel, Margaret. “Why Are There (Almost) No Randomised Controlled Trial-Based Evaluations of Business Support Programmes?” Palgrave Communications 4, no. 1 (February 6, 2018): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-018-0069-9.
  52. Deaton, Angus, and Nancy Cartwright. “The Limitations of Randomised Controlled Trials.” VoxEU.Org (blog), November 9, 2016. https://voxeu.org/article/limitations-randomised-controlled-trials.
  53. ———. “Understanding and Misunderstanding Randomized Controlled Trials.” Social Science & Medicine, Randomized Controlled Trials and Evidence-based Policy: A Multidisciplinary Dialogue, 210 (August 1, 2018): 2–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.12.005.
  54. MedicineNet. “Definition of Randomized Controlled Trial.” Accessed September 14, 2020. https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=39532.
  55. Del Mar, Chris, and Tammy C. Hoffmann. “A Guide to Performing a Peer Review of Randomised Controlled Trials.” BMC Medicine 13, no. 1 (November 2, 2015): 248. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0471-8.
  56. Derksen, Jeroen W. G., Anne M. May, and Miriam Koopman. “The Era of Alternative Designs to Connect Randomized Clinical Trials and Real-World Data.” Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 16, no. 9 (September 2019): 589–589. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41571-019-0250-0.
  57. “Donald Berwick Discusses Health Care Improvement: Goals, Exemplary Organizations,and Being at a Turning Point – O’Reilly Radar.” Accessed September 11, 2020. http://radar.oreilly.com/2013/07/donald-berwick-discusses-health-care-improvement-goals-exemplary-organizationsand-being-at-a-turning-point.html.
  58. Editor, Minitab Blog. “Repeated Measures Designs: Benefits, Challenges, and an ANOVA Example.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://blog.minitab.com/blog/adventures-in-statistics-2/repeated-measures-designs-benefits-challenges-and-an-anova-example.
  59. Eisman, John A., P. Geusens, and J. van den Bergh. “The Emperor’s New Clothes: What Randomized Controlled Trials Don’t Cover.” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 33, no. 8 (2018): 1394–96. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3539.
  60. Enkin, Murray. “(PDF) Using Anecdotal Information in Evidence-Based Health Care: Heresy or Necessity?” Accessed September 11, 2020. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/13468757_Using_anecdotal_information_in_evidence-based_health_care_Heresy_or_necessity.
  61. ResearchGate. “Estimating the Applicability of Wound Care Randomized Controlled Trials to General Wound-Care Populations by Estimating the Percentage of Individuals Excluded from a Typical Wound-Care Population in Such Trials | Request PDF.” Accessed September 14, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASW.0000305486.06358.e0.
  62. Euser, Anne M., Carmine Zoccali, Kitty J. Jager, and Friedo W. Dekker. “Cohort Studies: Prospective versus Retrospective.” Nephron Clinical Practice 113, no. 3 (2009): c214–17. https://doi.org/10.1159/000235241.
  63. ResearchGate. “Evidence-Based Medicine in Wound Care | Request PDF.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ASW.0000343719.38190.ad.
  64. Statistics How To. “Experimental Design.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.statisticshowto.com/experimental-design/.
  65. “Experiments and Quasi-Experiments.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/datamethods/experimentsquasi.jsp.
  66. Expert, Industry. “Generalizability and Reproducibility of Scientific Literature and the Limits to Machine Learning.” Health IT Answers (blog), June 23, 2016. https://www.healthitanswers.net/generalizability-and-reproducibility-of-scientific-literature-and-the-limits-to-machine-learning/.
  67. Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho, Cecilia Maria Patino, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira, and Cecilia Maria Patino. “Choosing Wisely between Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Designs in Studies about Interventions.” Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 42, no. 3 (June 2016): 165–165. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37562016000000152.
  68. Finley, Allysia. “Opinion | Medical Research’s Cross of ‘Gold’ Imperils Covid Treatments.” Wall Street Journal, September 8, 2020, sec. Opinion. https://www.wsj.com/articles/medical-researchs-cross-of-gold-imperils-covid-treatments-11599589020.
  69. Flanagan, Ryan F., and Olaf Dammann. “The Epistemological Weight of Randomized-Controlled Trials Depends on Their Results.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 61, no. 2 (2018): 157–73. https://doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2018.0034.
  70. Ford, Ian, and John Norrie. “Pragmatic Trials.” New England Journal of Medicine 375, no. 5 (August 4, 2016): 454–63. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1510059.
  71. Foroughi, Siavash, Hui-li Wong, Lucy Gately, Margaret Lee, Koen Simons, Jeanne Tie, Antony Wilks Burgess, and Peter Gibbs. “Re-Inventing the Randomized Controlled Trial in Medical Oncology: The Registry-Based Trial.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology 14, no. 6 (2018): 365–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajco.12992.
  72. Freemantle, Nick, Melanie Calvert, John Wood, Joanne Eastaugh, and Carl Griffin. “Composite Outcomes in Randomized Trials: Greater Precision but with Greater Uncertainty?” JAMA 289, no. 19 (May 21, 2003): 2554–59. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.19.2554.
  73. Frieden, Thomas R. “Evidence for Health Decision Making — Beyond Randomized, Controlled Trials.” New England Journal of Medicine 377, no. 5 (August 3, 2017): 465–75. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1614394.
  74. “Frontiers | To Mix or Not To Mix? A Meta-Method Approach to Rethinking Evaluation Practices for Improved Effectiveness and Efficiency of Psychological Therapies Illustrated With the Application of Perceptual Control Theory | Psychology.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01445/full.
  75. HCPLive. “Fundamentals of Clinical Research: Cohort Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.hcplive.com/view/march-2006-glasser.
  76. Gaille, Louise. “14 Advantages and Disadvantages of a Randomized Controlled Trial.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://vittana.org/14-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial.
  77. Gal, Roxanne, Evelyn M. Monninkhof, Carla H. van Gils, Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Desirée H. J. G. van den Bongard, Petra H. M. Peeters, Helena M. Verkooijen, and Anne M. May. “The Trials within Cohorts Design Faced Methodological Advantages and Disadvantages in the Exercise Oncology Setting.” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 113 (September 1, 2019): 137–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2019.05.017.
  78. Gelman, Andrew. “Benefits and Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials,” n.d., 3.
  79. Gerstein, Hertzel C., John McMurray, and Rury R. Holman. “Real-World Studies No Substitute for RCTs in Establishing Efficacy.” The Lancet 393, no. 10168 (January 19, 2019): 210–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32840-X.
  80. ———. “The Importance of Randomised vs Non-Randomised Trials – Authors’ Reply.” The Lancet 394, no. 10199 (August 24, 2019): 635. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31111-0.
  81. Government of Canada, Canadian Institutes of Health Research. “RCT Evaluation Criteria and Headings – CIHR,” January 6, 2009. https://cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/39187.html.
  82. Graham, Pamela Louise, Riccardo Russo, and Margaret Anne Defeyter. “The Advantages and Disadvantages of Breakfast Clubs According to Parents, Children, and School Staff in the North East of England, UK.” Frontiers in Public Health 3 (2015). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00156.
  83. Group, British Medical Journal Publishing. “Inappropriate Use of Randomised Trials to Evaluate Complex Phenomena: Case Study of Vaginal Breech Delivery.” BMJ 329, no. 7479 (December 9, 2004): 1385. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.329.7479.1385.
  84. Diet Doctor. “Guide to Observational vs. Experimental Studies.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.dietdoctor.com/observational-vs-experimental-studies.
  85. “Guide to Randomized Clinical Trials – IFFGD.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.iffgd.org/clinical-trials-studies/guide-to-randomized-clinical-trials.html.
  86. “Guide to Randomized Clinical Trials – IFFGD.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.iffgd.org/clinical-trials-studies/guide-to-randomized-clinical-trials.html.
  87. Guyatt, Gordon H., Andrew D. Oxman, Gunn Vist, Regina Kunz, Jan Brozek, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Victor Montori, et al. “GRADE Guidelines: 4. Rating the Quality of Evidence–Study Limitations (Risk of Bias).” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64, no. 4 (April 2011): 407–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2010.07.017.
  88. Hammoudeh, Samer, Wessam Gadelhaq, and Ibrahim Janahi. “Prospective Cohort Studies in Medical Research.” Cohort Studies in Health Sciences, November 5, 2018. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.76514.
  89. Herrera-Perez, Diana, Alyson Haslam, Tyler Crain, Jennifer Gill, Catherine Livingston, Victoria Kaestner, Michael Hayes, Dan Morgan, Adam S Cifu, and Vinay Prasad. “A Comprehensive Review of Randomized Clinical Trials in Three Medical Journals Reveals 396 Medical Reversals.” Edited by Eduardo Franco and Adam Elshaug. ELife 8 (June 11, 2019): e45183. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.45183.
  90. Hidefumi, Yokoo. “Are There Ethical Issues with Randomized Controlled Trials by Economists? Evidence from Two Online Surveys in Japan (Japanese).” Discussion Papers (Japanese). Discussion Papers (Japanese). Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI), January 2019. https://ideas.repec.org/p/eti/rdpsjp/19004.html.
  91. Hj, Möller. “Effectiveness Studies: Advantages and Disadvantages.” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 13, no. 2 (January 1, 2011): 199–207.
  92. Hollon, Steven D., and Bruce E. Wampold. “Are Randomized Controlled Trials Relevant to Clinical Practice?” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie 54, no. 9 (September 2009): 637–43. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370905400909.
  93. Horn, Susan D., Gerben DeJong, David K. Ryser, Peter J. Veazie, and Jeffrey Teraoka. “Another Look at Observational Studies in Rehabilitation Research: Going Beyond the Holy Grail of the Randomized Controlled Trial.” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 86, no. 12 (December 1, 2005): 8–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2005.08.116.
  94. Hui, David, Donna S. Zhukovsky, and Eduardo Bruera. “Which Treatment Is Better? Ascertaining Patient Preferences with Crossover Randomized Controlled Trials.” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 49, no. 3 (March 2015): 625–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2014.11.294.
  95. The Scientist Magazine®. “Infographic: N-of-1 Studies Tackle Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Accessed September 12, 2020. https://www.the-scientist.com/infographics/infographic–n-of-1-studies-tackle-limitations-of-randomized-controlled-trials-66138.
  96. Innocenti, UNICEF Office of Research-. “Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs): Methodological Briefs – Impact Evaluation No. 7.” UNICEF-IRC. Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/752-randomized-controlled-trials-rcts-methodological-briefs-impact-evaluation-no-7.html.
  97. “Intervention Studies.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/EP/EP713_ClinicalTrials/EP713_ClinicalTrials_print.html.
  98. Jager, K. J., C. Zoccali, A. MacLeod, and F. W. Dekker. “Confounding: What It Is and How to Deal with It.” Kidney International 73, no. 3 (February 1, 2008): 256–60. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ki.5002650.
  99. Johansson, Eva, Fredrik Hammarskjöld, Dag Lundberg, and Marianne Heibert Arnlind. “Advantages and Disadvantages of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters (PICC) Compared to Other Central Venous Lines: A Systematic Review of the Literature.” Acta Oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) 52, no. 5 (June 2013): 886–92. https://doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2013.773072.
  100. Juszczak, Edmund, Douglas G. Altman, Sally Hopewell, and Kenneth Schulz. “Reporting of Multi-Arm Parallel-Group Randomized Trials: Extension of the CONSORT 2010 Statement.” JAMA 321, no. 16 (April 23, 2019): 1610–20. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.3087.
  101. Kahan, Brennan C., Sunita Rehal, and Suzie Cro. “Risk of Selection Bias in Randomised Trials.” Trials 16 (September 10, 2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-015-0920-x.
  102. Kenneth, Stanley. “Design of Randomized Controlled Trials | Circulation.” Accessed September 11, 2020. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.594945.
  103. Kinoshita, Yoshikazu, Norihisa Ishimura, and Shunji Ishihara. “Advantages and Disadvantages of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Use.” Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility 24, no. 2 (April 30, 2018): 182–96. https://doi.org/10.5056/jnm18001.
  104. Korn, Edward L., and Boris Freidlin. “Adaptive Clinical Trials: Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Adaptive Design Elements.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 109, no. 6 (01 2017). https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx013.
  105. Krauss, Alexander. “Why All Randomised Controlled Trials Produce Biased Results.” Annals of Medicine 50, no. 4 (May 19, 2018): 312–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2018.1453233.
  106. Krishnan, Nikhil. “Random Uncontrolled Trials/Tweets.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://outofpocket.health/p/random-uncontrolled-trialstweets.
  107. Krogh, Helle B., Ole Jakob Storebø, Erlend Faltinsen, Adnan Todorovac, Erica Ydedahl-Jensen, Frederik Løgstrup Magnusson, Mathilde Holmskov, Trine Gerner, Christian Gluud, and Erik Simonsen. “Methodological Advantages and Disadvantages of Parallel and Crossover Randomised Clinical Trials on Methylphenidate for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.” BMJ Open 9, no. 3 (March 1, 2019): e026478. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026478.
  108. Kumar, Navin, Jessica Ainooson, Ameera Billings, Grace Chen, Lauren Cueto, Kamila Janmohamed, Jeannette Jiang, Raymond Niaura, and Amy Zhang. “The Scope of Tobacco Cessation Randomized Controlled Trials in Low- to Middle-Income Countries: Protocol for a Scoping Review.” Systematic Reviews 9, no. 1 (April 21, 2020): 86. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01361-2.
  109. StuDocu. “L14 CNCSP 102 – Lecture Notes 14 – UC Santa Barbara.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.studocu.com/en-us/document/university-of-california-santa-barbara/research-in-applied-psychology/lecture-notes/l14-cncsp-102-lecture-notes-14/7534070/view.
  110. Lefkowitz, W., and T. C. Jefferson. “Medicine at the Limits of Evidence: The Fundamental Limitation of the Randomized Clinical Trial and the End of Equipoise.” Journal of Perinatology 34, no. 4 (April 2014): 249–51. https://doi.org/10.1038/jp.2013.172.
  111. Life in the Fast Lane • LITFL • Medical Blog. “Life in the Fast Lane • LITFL • Medical Blog • Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Medical Education Blog.” Accessed September 12, 2020. https://litfl.com/.
  112. Lilienfeld, Scott O., Dean McKay, and Steven D. Hollon. “Why Randomised Controlled Trials of Psychological Treatments Are Still Essential.” The Lancet Psychiatry 5, no. 7 (July 1, 2018): 536–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30045-2.
  113. The Incidental Economist. “Limitations of Randomized Trials,” May 19, 2010. https://theincidentaleconomist.com/wordpress/limitations-of-randomized-trials/.
  114. Lin, Jaung-Geng, Chao-Hsun Chen, Yu-Che Huang, and Yi-Hung Chen. “How to Design the Control Group in Randomized Controlled Trials of Acupuncture?” Review Article. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Hindawi, July 5, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/875284.
  115. Mariani, Alessandro Wasum, Paulo Manuel Pego-Fernandes, Alessandro Wasum Mariani, and Paulo Manuel Pego-Fernandes. “Observational Studies: Why Are They so Important?” Sao Paulo Medical Journal 132, no. 1 (2014): 01–02. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-3180.2014.1321784.
  116. “Medical Acupuncture — A Review | 2002-07-08 | AHC Media: Continuing Medical Education Publishing.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.reliasmedia.com/articles/79871-medical-acupuncture-8212-a-review.
  117. Tablet Magazine. “Medicine’s Fundamentalists,” August 14, 2020. /sections/science/articles/randomized-control-tests-doidge.
  118. Tablet Magazine. “Medicine’s Fundamentalists,” August 14, 2020. /sections/science/articles/randomized-control-tests-doidge.
  119. Miranda, J. Jaime, and M. Justin Zaman. “Exporting ‘Failure’: Why Research from Rich Countries May Not Benefit the Developing World.” Revista de Saúde Pública 44, no. 1 (February 2010): 185–89. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102010000100020.
  120. Mora, Mariela Acuña, Markus Saarijärvi, Philip Moons, Carina Sparud-Lundin, Ewa-Lena Bratt, and Eva Goossens. “The Scope of Research on Transfer and Transition in Young Persons With Chronic Conditions.” Journal of Adolescent Health 65, no. 5 (November 1, 2019): 581–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.07.014.
  121. Moss, Arthur J., Charles W. Francis, and Daniel Ryan. “Collaborative Clinical Trials.” New England Journal of Medicine 364, no. 9 (March 3, 2011): 789–91. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1013194.
  122. Mulder, Roger, Ajeet B. Singh, Amber Hamilton, Pritha Das, Tim Outhred, Grace Morris, Darryl Bassett, et al. “The Limitations of Using Randomised Controlled Trials as a Basis for Developing Treatment Guidelines.” Evidence-Based Mental Health 21, no. 1 (February 1, 2018): 4–6. https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2017-102701.
  123. Murphy, Chris B. “Pros and Cons of Stratified Random Sampling.” Investopedia. Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/041615/what-are-advantages-and-disadvantages-stratified-random-sampling.asp.
  124. nhs.uk. “News Glossary – Behind the Headlines – NHS Choices,” August 3, 2017. https://www.nhs.uk/news/health-news-glossary/.
  125. NFER. “A Guide to Running Randomised Controlled Trials for Educational Researchers.” NFER. Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.nfer.ac.uk/a-guide-to-running-randomised-controlled-trials-for-educational-researchers/.
  126. “Non-Randomised Controlled Study (NRS) Designs.” Accessed September 13, 2020. /non-randomised-controlled-study-nrs-designs.
  127. “Observational vs. Experimental Studies.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/observational-vs-experimental-studies.
  128. “Observational vs. Experimental Studies.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/observational-vs-experimental-studies.
  129. Okifuji, Akiko, Jeff Gao, Christina Bokat, and Bradford D Hare. “Management of Fibromyalgia Syndrome in 2016.” Pain Management 6, no. 4 (June 16, 2016): 383–400. https://doi.org/10.2217/pmt-2016-0006.
  130. Osimani, Barbara. “Until RCT Proven? On the Asymmetry of Evidence Requirements for Risk Assessment.” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19, no. 3 (2013): 454–62. https://doi.org/10.1111/jep.12039.
  131. Pallmann, Philip, Alun W. Bedding, Babak Choodari-Oskooei, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Laura Flight, Lisa V. Hampson, Jane Holmes, et al. “Adaptive Designs in Clinical Trials: Why Use Them, and How to Run and Report Them.” BMC Medicine 16, no. 1 (February 28, 2018): 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1017-7.
  132. Pandis, Nikolaos. “Randomization. Part 2: Minimization.” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 140, no. 6 (December 2011): 902–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.08.016.
  133. Parkway, Nuventra Pharma Sciences2525 Meridian, and Suite 200 Durham. “What Is an Adaptive Clinical Trial Design? | Benefits & Pitfalls.” PK / PD and Clinical Pharmacology Consultants, February 19, 2020. https://www.nuventra.com/resources/blog/adaptive-design-clinical-trials/.
  134. PhD, Maher M. El-Masri, RN. “Terminology 101: Blinding in RCTs.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://canadian-nurse.com/en/articles/issues/2015/march-2015/terminology-101-blinding-in-rcts.
  135. Pincus, Theodore. “Limitations of Traditional Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials in Rheumatology.” In Understanding Evidence-Based Rheumatology: A Guide to Interpreting Criteria, Drugs, Trials, Registries, and Ethics, edited by Hasan Yazici, Yusuf Yazici, and Emmanuel Lesaffre, 179–207. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08374-2_8.
  136. Porzsolt, Franz, and Hartmut Kliemt. “Ethische und empirische Grenzen randomisierter kontrollierter Studien.” Medizinische Klinik 103, no. 12 (December 2008): 836–42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00063-008-1132-x.
  137. “Problems with Randomized Controlled Trials (or Any Bounded Statistical Analysis) and Thinking More Seriously about Story Time : Statistics.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.reddit.com/r/statistics/comments/5n5eiy/problems_with_randomized_controlled_trials_or_any/.
  138. Pancreatic Cancer UK. “Pros & Cons of Clinical Trials.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.pancreaticcancer.org.uk/information-and-support/clinical-trials/taking-part-in-a-clinical-trial/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-clinical-trials/.
  139. Life in the Fast Lane • LITFL • Medical Blog. “Randomised Control Trials • LITFL • CCC Research,” January 4, 2019. https://litfl.com/randomised-control-trials/.
  140. Life in the Fast Lane • LITFL • Medical Blog. “Randomised Control Trials • LITFL • CCC Research,” January 4, 2019. https://litfl.com/randomised-control-trials/.
  141. “Randomised Controlled Trial | Better Evaluation.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.betterevaluation.org/en/plan/approach/rct.
  142. GOV.UK. “Randomised Controlled Trial: Comparative Studies.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/randomised-controlled-trial-comparative-studies.
  143. “Randomised Controlled Trials.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www1.cgmh.org.tw/intr/intr5/c6700/OBGYN/F/Randomized%20tial/chapter2.html.
  144. Cancer Research UK. “Randomised Trials,” October 21, 2014. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/find-a-clinical-trial/what-clinical-trials-are/randomised-trials.
  145. “Randomised Trials | CEBD.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.cebd.org/conducting-research/randomised-trials/.
  146. Friends of Cancer Research. “Randomized and Single-Arm Trials,” August 21, 2013. https://www.focr.org/randomized-and-single-arm-trials.
  147. “Randomized Controlled Trial – Wikipedia.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Randomized_controlled_trial.
  148. “Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT): Biostatistics Review.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.ebmconsult.com/articles/randomized-controlled-trial-rct.
  149. “Randomized Controlled Trials: Overview, Benefits, and Limitations,” December 4, 2018. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/280574.
  150. Wiley.com. “Randomized Controlled Trials: Questions, Answers and Musings, 2nd Edition | Wiley.” Accessed September 4, 2020. https://www.wiley.com/en-ca/Randomized+Controlled+Trials%3A+Questions%2C+Answers+and+Musings%2C+2nd+Edition-p-9780470766163.
  151. BetterEvaluation. “Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs),” November 26, 2014. https://www.betterevaluation.org/en/resources/guide/randomized_control_trials.
  152. “Randomized Trials vs Meta-Analyses: Which Is the Better Bet? – The ASCO Post.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://ascopost.com/issues/june-10-2014/randomized-trials-vs-meta-analyses-which-is-the-better-bet/.
  153. Ratain, Jill S., and Marc C. Hochberg. “Clinical Trials.” Arthritis & Rheumatism 33, no. 1 (1990): 131–39. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.1780330118.
  154. Razif Shahril. “6. Randomised Controlled Trial.” Health & Medicine, 16:01:18 UTC. https://www.slideshare.net/razifshahril/6-randomised-controlled-trial.
  155. LARS P. SYLL. “RCTs — Pros and Cons,” August 14, 2014. https://larspsyll.wordpress.com/2014/08/14/rcts-pros-and-cons/.
  156. Read “Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response: The Ebola Experience” at NAP.Edu. Accessed September 14, 2020. https://doi.org/10.17226/24739.
  157. “Research and Evidence-Based Medicine | Murtagh’s General Practice, 6e | Murtagh Collection | McGraw-Hill Medical.” Accessed September 13, 2020. http://murtagh.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1522&sectionid=116023669.
  158. Life in the Fast Lane • LITFL • Medical Blog. “Retrospective Studies and Chart Reviews • LITFL • CCC Research,” January 9, 2019. https://litfl.com/retrospective-studies-and-chart-reviews/.
  159. “RIETI – Are There Ethical Issues with Randomized Controlled Trials by Economists? Evidence from Two Online Surveys in Japan.” Accessed September 12, 2020. https://www.rieti.go.jp/en/publications/summary/19010008.html?ref=rss.
  160. Rosen, Laura, Orly Manor, Dan Engelhard, and David Zucker. “In Defense of the Randomized Controlled Trial for Health Promotion Research.” American Journal of Public Health 96, no. 7 (July 2006): 1181–86. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.061713.
  161. Roubaud, François, and Isabelle Guérin. “2019 Nobel Prize in Economics: The Limits of the Clinical Trial Method.” The Conversation. Accessed September 12, 2020. http://theconversation.com/2019-nobel-prize-in-economics-the-limits-of-the-clinical-trial-method-125888.
  162. Rudd, Peter. “Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) in Practice: An Examination of the Advantages and the Potential Pitfalls of Using RCTs in Education.” Accessed September 12, 2020. https://www.academia.edu/2702909/Randomised_Controlled_Trials_RCTs_in_practice_an_examination_of_the_advantages_and_the_potential_pitfalls_of_using_RCTs_in_education.
  163. Salkind, Neil. Encyclopedia of Research Design. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks California 91320 United States: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2010. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412961288.
  164. Sanson-Fisher, Robert William, Billie Bonevski, Lawrence W. Green, and Cate D’Este. “Limitations of the Randomized Controlled Trial in Evaluating Population-Based Health Interventions.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 33, no. 2 (August 1, 2007): 155–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2007.04.007.
  165. Saturni, S., F. Bellini, F. Braido, P. Paggiaro, A. Sanduzzi, N. Scichilone, P. A. Santus, L. Morandi, and A. Papi. “Randomized Controlled Trials and Real Life Studies. Approaches and Methodologies: A Clinical Point of View.” Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 27, no. 2 (April 2014): 129–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2014.01.005.
  166. Shean, Glenn. “Limitations of Randomized Control Designs in Psychotherapy Research.” Review Article. Advances in Psychiatry. Hindawi, November 6, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/561452.
  167. Sibinga, Erica M. S., and Jacky M. Jennings. “Strengths and Limitations of Randomized, Controlled Trials.” Pediatrics in Review 31, no. 7 (July 2010): 296–97. https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.31-7-296.
  168. “Single or Multicentre Trials.” Accessed September 13, 2020. http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/TPT/SOURCE/Checklist/StudyObjectives/Single%20or%20Multi.html.
  169. “Single-Blind Study.” In Encyclopedia of Research Design. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks California 91320 United States: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2010. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412961288.n423.
  170. sitecore\jcrew@rcseng.ac.uk. “Dissecting the Literature: The Importance of Critical Appraisal.” Royal College of Surgeons. Accessed September 14, 2020. https://www.rcseng.ac.uk/library-and-publications/library/blog/dissecting-the-literature-the-importance-of-critical-appraisal/.
  171. Speich, Benjamin, Nadine Schur, Dmitry Gryaznov, Belinda von Niederhäusern, Lars G. Hemkens, Stefan Schandelmaier, Alain Amstutz, et al. “Resource Use, Costs, and Approval Times for Planning and Preparing a Randomized Clinical Trial before and after the Implementation of the New Swiss Human Research Legislation.” PLOS ONE 14, no. 1 (January 11, 2019): e0210669. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210669.
  172. Spieth, Peter Markus, Anne Sophie Kubasch, Ana Isabel Penzlin, Ben Min-Woo Illigens, Kristian Barlinn, and Timo Siepmann. “Randomized Controlled Trials – a Matter of Design.” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 12 (June 10, 2016): 1341–49. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S101938.
  173. Stephenson, Judith, and John Imrie. “Why Do We Need Randomised Controlled Trials to Assess Behavioural Interventions?” BMJ : British Medical Journal 316, no. 7131 (February 14, 1998): 611–13.
  174. Stolberg, Harald O., Geoffrey Norman, and Isabelle Trop. “Randomized Controlled Trials.” American Journal of Roentgenology 183, no. 6 (December 1, 2004): 1539–44. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.183.6.01831539.
  175. “Study Designs — Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, University of Oxford.” Web Page. Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.cebm.ox.ac.uk/resources/ebm-tools/study-designs.
  176. ResearchGate. “Table 5 Some Advantages and Disadvantages of Random- Ized And…” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Some-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-random-ized-and-non-randomized-CTs_tbl2_323340139.
  177. Tang, D. H., T. L. Warholak, L. E. Hines, J. Hurwitz, M. Brown, A. M. Taylor, D. Brixner, and D. C. Malone. “Evaluation of Pharmacy and Therapeutic (P&T) Committee Member Knowledge, Attitudes and Ability Regarding the Use of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) in Health Care Decision-Making.” Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 10, no. 5 (September 1, 2014): 768–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.11.008.
  178. Tashkin, Donald P., Alpesh N. Amin, and Edward M. Kerwin. “<p>Comparing Randomized Controlled Trials and Real-World Studies in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Pharmacotherapy</P>.” International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Dove Press, June 2, 2020. https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S244942.
  179. Clinical Sciences. “The Advantages and Disadvantages of Observational and Randomised Controlled Trials in Evaluating New Interventions in Medicine.,” June 9, 2011. https://clinicalsciences.wordpress.com/article/the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-1blm6ty1i8a7z-8/.
  180. Clinical Sciences. “The Advantages and Disadvantages of Observational and Randomised Controlled Trials in Evaluating New Interventions in Medicine.,” June 9, 2011. https://clinicalsciences.wordpress.com/article/the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-1blm6ty1i8a7z-8/.
  181. The Disadvantages of Randomised Clinical Trials, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7BmQrPMtgc.
  182. “The Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials | ASSOCIATION OF INTEGRATIVE ONCOLOGY AND CHINESE MEDICINE(AIOCM).” Accessed September 12, 2020. https://aiocm.org/uncategorized/the-limitations-of-randomized-controlled-trials/.
  183. https://www.apa.org. “The Pitfalls of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2010/09/trials.
  184. “The Problems with Randomised Controlled Trials | VOX, CEPR Policy Portal.” Accessed September 12, 2020. https://voxeu.org/content/problems-randomised-controlled-trials.
  185. NursingAnswers.net. “The Review Of Randomised Control Trials.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://nursinganswers.net/essays/the-review-of-randomised-control-trials-research.php.
  186. Torgerson, David J., and Carole J. Torgerson. “Avoiding Bias in Randomised Controlled Trials in Educational Research.” British Journal of Educational Studies 51, no. 1 (2003): 36–45.
  187. Turner, Murray. “UC Library Guides: Evidence-Based Practice in Health: Hierarchy of Evidence.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://canberra.libguides.com/c.php?g=599346&p=4149721.
  188. Pharmaceutical Training – Astra Nova. “Understanding Randomized Controlled Trials: Why Are They Important?,” June 16, 2015. https://crotraining.co.uk/understanding-randomized-controlled-trials-why-are-they-important/.
  189. “US Payers: Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) and Formulary Decision-Making.” Accessed September 12, 2020. https://isrreports.com/reports/us-payers-comparative-effectiveness-research-cer-and-forumulary-decision-making/.
  190. “Using Multiple Types of Studies in Systematic Reviews of Health Care Interventions – A Systematic Review.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0085035.
  191. Vincent, Jean-Louis. “The Coming Era of Precision Medicine for Intensive Care.” Critical Care 21, no. Suppl 3 (December 28, 2017). https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCA&sw=w&issn=13648535&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA546387665&sid=googleScholar&linkaccess=abs.
  192. “Vitamin D and Pregnancy – When Headlines Mislead… – GrassrootsHealth.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.grassrootshealth.net/blog/when-headlines-mislead/.
  193. EN Testing Treatments interactive. “What Are Randomised Controlled Trials and Why Are They Important?,” February 4, 2014. https://en.testingtreatments.org/the-gold-standard-what-are-randomised-controlled-trials-and-why-are-they-important/.
  194. “What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Emergent Cricothyrotomy?” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.medscape.com/answers/865068-32848/what-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-emergent-cricothyrotomy.
  195. “Why Randomised Controlled Trials of Psychological Treatments Are Still Essential – The Lancet Psychiatry.” Accessed September 13, 2020. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366(18)30045-2/fulltext.
  196. STAT. “Why the ‘gold Standard’ of Medical Research Is No Longer Enough,” August 2, 2017. https://www.statnews.com/2017/08/02/randomized-controlled-trials-medical-research/.
  197. STAT. “Why the ‘gold Standard’ of Medical Research Is No Longer Enough,” August 2, 2017. https://www.statnews.com/2017/08/02/randomized-controlled-trials-medical-research/.
  198. Wiley.com. “Willful Ignorance: The Mismeasure of Uncertainty | Wiley.” Accessed September 4, 2020. https://www.wiley.com/en-ca/Willful+Ignorance%3A+The+Mismeasure+of+Uncertainty-p-9781118593790.
  199. Wojcieszek, Aleena M., Alexander EP Heazell, Philippa Middleton, David Ellwood, Robert M. Silver, and Vicki Flenady. “Research Priorities and Potential Methodologies to Inform Care in Subsequent Pregnancies Following Stillbirth: A Web-Based Survey of Healthcare Professionals, Researchers and Advocates.” BMJ Open 9, no. 6 (June 1, 2019): e028735. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028735.
  200. Wu, Jianqing, and Ping Zha. “Randomized Clinical Trial Is Biased and Invalid In Studying Chronic Diseases, Compared with Multiple Factors Optimization Trial.” SSRN Electronic Journal, 2019. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3480523.
  201. Zahiri Harsini, Azita, Fazlollah Ghofranipour, Hormoz Sanaeinasab, and Farkhondeh Amin Shokravi. “A Randomised Controlled Trial of an Educational Intervention to Promote Safe Behaviours in Petrochemical Workers: A Study Protocol.” BMC Public Health 19, no. 1 (June 18, 2019): 776. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7126-1.
  202. Zeilstra, Dennis, Jessica A. Younes, Robert J. Brummer, and Michiel Kleerebezem. “Perspective: Fundamental Limitations of the Randomized Controlled Trial Method in Nutritional Research: The Example of Probiotics.” Advances in Nutrition 9, no. 5 (September 1, 2018): 561–71. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmy046.

 

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *